Comparison of Programming Languages

From Unify Community Wiki
(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Text replace - "</javascript>" to "</syntaxhighlight>")
m (Text replace - "<boo>" to "<syntaxhighlight lang="boo">")
Line 201: Line 201:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} one-dimensional fixed size array
 
! {{wikitable-th}} one-dimensional fixed size array
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>(type)</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">(type)</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type[size]</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type[size]</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">type[size]</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">type[size]</syntaxhighlight>
Line 214: Line 214:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} one-dimensional dynamic size array
 
! {{wikitable-th}} one-dimensional dynamic size array
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>List</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">List</boo>
 
or
 
or
<boo>System.Collections.Generic.List[type]</boo>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="boo">System.Collections.Generic.List[type]</boo>
 
or
 
or
<boo>System.Collections.ArrayList</boo>
+
<syntaxhighlight lang="boo">System.Collections.ArrayList</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">System.Collections.ArrayList</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">System.Collections.ArrayList</syntaxhighlight>
 
or
 
or
Line 247: Line 247:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enumerated_type Enumeration] Simple Composite Types
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enumerated_type Enumeration] Simple Composite Types
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>enum condition:
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">enum condition:
 
⇥ item1
 
⇥ item1
 
⇥ «item2
 
⇥ «item2
Line 281: Line 281:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} variable
 
! {{wikitable-th}} variable
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>name = initial_value</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">name = initial_value</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type name «= initial_value»;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type name «= initial_value»;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">var name «= initial_value»;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">var name «= initial_value»;</syntaxhighlight>
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} constant
 
! {{wikitable-th}} constant
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>final name = initial_value</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">final name = initial_value</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">const type name = value;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">const type name = value;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">N/A</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="javascript">N/A</syntaxhighlight>
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} type synonym
 
! {{wikitable-th}} type synonym
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>synonym = typeof(type)</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">synonym = typeof(type)</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">using synonym = type;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">using synonym = type;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-?}}
 
| {{wikitable-?}}
Line 308: Line 308:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} if
 
! {{wikitable-th}} if
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>if (condition):
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">if (condition):
 
     instructions
 
     instructions
 
else:
 
else:
Line 318: Line 318:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} else if
 
! {{wikitable-th}} else if
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>if (condition):
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">if (condition):
 
instructions
 
instructions
 
elif:
 
elif:
Line 360: Line 360:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/While_loop while]
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/While_loop while]
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>while (condition):
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">while (condition):
 
     instructions</boo>
 
     instructions</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">while (condition) { instructions; }</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">while (condition) { instructions; }</syntaxhighlight>
Line 371: Line 371:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_loop for]
 
! {{wikitable-th}} [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_loop for]
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>for i in range(first, last):
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">for i in range(first, last):
 
     instructions</boo>
 
     instructions</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">for («initializer»; «condition»; «modifier») { instructions; }</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">for («initializer»; «condition»; «modifier») { instructions; }</syntaxhighlight>
Line 433: Line 433:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} exit block(break)
 
! {{wikitable-th}} exit block(break)
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>break</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">break</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">break;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">break;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-?}}
 
| {{wikitable-?}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
! {{wikitable-th}} continue
 
! {{wikitable-th}} continue
| {{wikitable-td}} <boo>continue</boo>
+
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="boo">continue</boo>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">continue;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">continue;</syntaxhighlight>
 
| {{wikitable-?}}
 
| {{wikitable-?}}

Revision as of 20:57, 10 January 2012


This is a comparison of the features and instructions of the three high-level programming languages offered by Unity: JavaScript, C#, and Boo.


Contents

Conventions of This Article

The bold is the literal code. The non-bold is interpreted by the reader. Statements in guillemets (« … ») are optional. “⇥ ” indicates a necessary indent.

The following tables compare code differences of the Unity programming languages. See also the Comparison of Programming Languages for general information.


Features

The following tables compares major features of the Unity programming languages.

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
Paradigm(s)
Standardized Variation? Yes Yes, ECMA, ISO ECMA-334; ISO/IEC 23270:2006 No
Type Strength strong, duck strong strong1, duck
Type Safety safe safe safe
Expression of Types implicit with optional explicit typing explicit implicit with optional explicit typing
Compatibility Among Composite Types ? name-based ?
Type Checking static with optional dynamic typing static with optional dynamic typing static with optional dynamic typing

1 Normally Javascript in Unity uses type inference to statically type all variables when possible, in cases where the type is not explicitly stated. Dynamic typing can be forced if desired, and, in certain circumstances, dynamic typing is used unless forced otherwise. Use of the "#pragma strict" directive disables all dynamic typing.

Type Identifiers

Integer

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
8-bit (byte) Signed sbyte sbyte sbyte
8-bit (byte) Unsigned byte byte byte
16-bit (short integer) Signed short short short
16-bit (short integer) Unsigned ushort ushort ushort
32-bit Signed int int int
32-bit Unsigned uint uint uint
64-bit (long integer) Signed long long long
64-bit long integer) Unsigned ulong ulong ulong

Floating Point

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
Single Precision single float float
Double Precision double double double
Arbitrarily Precise (bignum) decimal decimal ?

Other Types

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
Text Character N/A char char
Text String string string String
Boolean) bool bool boolean
Object/Universal) object object Object


Derived Types

Array

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
one-dimensional fixed size array
(type)</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type[size]
type[size]
multi-dimensional fixed size array ?
type[size1, size2,...]

or

type[size1][size2]...
type[size1, size2,...]

(note: currently these types of arrays can be created implicitly and used, but cannot be created explicitly)

one-dimensional dynamic size array
List</boo>
or
<syntaxhighlight lang="boo">System.Collections.Generic.List[type]</boo>
or
<syntaxhighlight lang="boo">System.Collections.ArrayList</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">System.Collections.ArrayList

or

System.Collections.Generic.List<type>
Array

or

System.Collections.ArrayList
multi-dimensional dynamic size array ?
System.Collections.Generic.List<System.Collections.Generic.List<...>>
?

Other Types

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
Record Simple Composite Types ?
struct name { type name; ... }
via objects:
class name { type name; ... }
Enumeration Simple Composite Types
enum condition:
⇥	item1
⇥	«item2
⇥	…»</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">enum name «: integral-type» { name «= value», ... }
enum type { name, ... }

Basic Unity-Specific Types

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
array ? ?
Array


Declarations

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
variable
name = initial_value</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">type name «= initial_value»;
var name «= initial_value»;
constant
final name = initial_value</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">const type name = value;
N/A
type synonym
synonym = typeof(type)</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">using synonym = type;
?

Flow of Control

Conditional Statements

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
if
if (condition):
    instructions
else:
    instructions</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">if (condition) { instructions; }
«else { instructions; }»
if (condition) { instructions; }
«else { instructions; }»
else if
if (condition):
	instructions
elif:
	instructions</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">if (condition) { instructions; }
else if (condition) { instructions; }
...
«else { instructions; }»
if (condition) { instructions; }
else if (condition) { instructions; }
...
«else { instructions; }»
select case ?
switch (variable) {
	case case1: instructions; jump-statement;
	...
	«default: instructions; jump-statement;»
}
switch (variable) {
	case case1: instructions; jump-statement;
	...
	«default: instructions; jump-statement;»
}
conditional expression (ternary) N/A
condition ? valueIfTrue : valueIfFalse;
condition ? valueIfTrue : valueIfFalse;

Loop Statements

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
while
while (condition):
    instructions</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">while (condition) { instructions; }
while (condition) { instructions; }
do-while ?
do { instructions; } while(condition);
?
for
for i in range(first, last):
    instructions</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">for («initializer»; «condition»; «modifier») { instructions; }
?
foreach ?
foreach (type name in collection) { instructions; }
?

Exceptions

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
throw ?
throw new exceptionType(«arguments»);

or

throw exceptionVariable;

or

throw; // re-throws an exception; can only be used inside a catch block
?
handler ?
try { instructions; }
«catch(exceptionType «variable») { «instructions;» }»
...
catch«(exceptionType «variable»)» { «instructions;» }

or

try { instructions; }
finally { instructions; }

or

try { instructions; }
«catch(exceptionType «variable») { «instructions;» }»
...
catch«(exceptionType «variable»)» { «instructions;» }
finally { instructions; }
?
assertion ?
System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(condition «, message «, detailsMessage»»);
?

Other Flow of Control Statements

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
exit block(break)
break</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">break;
?
continue
continue</boo>
| {{wikitable-td}} <syntaxhighlight lang="csharp">continue;
?
label ?
labelName:
?
branch (goto) ?
goto labelName;

or

goto case caseValue; // can only be used in a switch block
?
return value from generator ? ? ?

Functions

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
calling a function ?
functionName(arg1, arg2, ...);
?
basic/void function ?
void functionName(type param1, type param2, ...) { instructions; }
?
value-returning function ?
type functionName(type param1, type param2, ...) { instructions; return valueOfFunctionType; }
?

Type Conversions

Language Boo C# UnityScript/JavaScript
basic type to basic type ?
(type) name
?
string to basic type ?
type.Parse(name) /* THIS IS HIGHLY DEPENDENT UPON THE BASIC TYPE */
?
basic type to string ?
name.ToString()
?
complex type to string ?
name.ToString()
?
complex type to complex type ?
(type) name

or

name as type
name as type



Programming Index

Personal tools
Namespaces

Variants
Actions
Navigation
Extras
Toolbox