3d Math functions

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//increase or decrease the length of vector by size Vector3 addVectorLength(Vector3 vector, float size){

//get the vector length float magnitude = Vector3.Magnitude(vector);

//change the length magnitude += size;

//normalize the vector Vector3 vectorNormalized = Vector3.Normalize(vector);

//scale the vector return Vector3.Scale(vectorNormalized, new Vector3(magnitude, magnitude, magnitude)); }

//create a vector of direction "vector" with length "size" Vector3 setVectorLength(Vector3 vector, float size){

//normalize the vector Vector3 vectorNormalized = Vector3.Normalize(vector);

//scale the vector // return Vector3.Scale(vectorNormalized, new Vector3(size, size, size)); return vectorNormalized *= size; }


//caclulate the rotational difference from A to B Quaternion subtractRotation(Quaternion B, Quaternion A){ Quaternion C = Quaternion.Inverse(A) * B; return C; }


//Find the line of intersection between two planes. //The inputs are two game objects which represent the planes. The plane is assumed to be made //up of the x and z axis of the game object. //The outputs are a point on the line and a vector which indicates it's direction. void planePlaneIntersection(out Vector3 linePoint, out Vector3 lineVec, Vector3 plane1Normal, Vector3 plane1Position, Vector3 plane2Normal, Vector3 plane2Position){

linePoint = Vector3.zero; lineVec = Vector3.zero;

//We can get the direction of the line of intersection of the two planes by calculating the //cross product of the normals of the two planes. Note that this is just a direction and the line //is not fixed in space yet. We need a point for that to go with the line vector. lineVec = Vector3.Cross(plane1Normal, plane2Normal);

//Next is to calculate a point on the line to fix it's position in space. This is done by finding a vector from //the plane2 location, moving parallel to it's plane, and intersecting plane1. To prevent rounding //errors, this vector also has to be perpendicular to lineDirection. To get this vector, calculate //the cross product of the normal of plane2 and the lineDirection. Vector3 ldir = Vector3.Cross(plane2Normal, lineVec);

float denominator = Vector3.Dot(plane1Normal, ldir);

//Prevent divide by zero and rounding errors by requiring about 5 degrees angle between the planes. if(Mathf.Abs(denominator) > 0.006f){

Vector3 plane1ToPlane2 = plane1Position - plane2Position; float t = Vector3.Dot(plane1Normal, plane1ToPlane2) / denominator; linePoint = plane2Position + t * ldir; } }

//Get the coordinates (world space) of the intersection between a line and a plane Vector3 linePlaneIntersection(Vector3 linePoint, Vector3 lineVec, Vector3 planeNormal, Vector3 planePoint){

float length; float dotNumerator; float dotDenominator; Vector3 vector;

//calculate the distance between the linePoint and the line-plane intersection point dotNumerator = Vector3.Dot((planePoint - linePoint), planeNormal); dotDenominator = Vector3.Dot(lineVec, planeNormal);

//line and plane are not parallel if(dotDenominator != 0.0f){ length = dotNumerator / dotDenominator;

//create a vector from the linePoint to the intersection point vector = setVectorLength(lineVec, length);

//get the coordinates of the line-plane intersection point return linePoint + vector; }

else{ return Vector3.zero; }

}

//Two non-parallel lines which may or may not touch each other have a point on each line which lays closest //to each other. This function finds those two points. void closestPointsOnTwoLines(out Vector3 closestPointLine1, out Vector3 closestPointLine2, Vector3 linePoint1, Vector3 lineVec1, Vector3 linePoint2, Vector3 lineVec2){

closestPointLine1 = Vector3.zero; closestPointLine2 = Vector3.zero;

float a = Vector3.Dot(lineVec1, lineVec1); float b = Vector3.Dot(lineVec1, lineVec2); float e = Vector3.Dot(lineVec2, lineVec2);

float d = a*e - b*b;

//lines are not parallel if(d != 0.0f){

Vector3 r = linePoint1 - linePoint2; float c = Vector3.Dot(lineVec1, r); float f = Vector3.Dot(lineVec2, r);

float s = (b*f - c*e) / d; float t = (a*f - c*b) / d;

closestPointLine1 = linePoint1 + lineVec1 * s; closestPointLine2 = linePoint2 + lineVec2 * t; }

else{ closestPointLine1 = new Vector3(float.MaxValue, float.MaxValue, float.MaxValue); closestPointLine2 = new Vector3(float.MaxValue, float.MaxValue, float.MaxValue); } }

//This function returns a 3d point in space which is a projection from point "point" to a line, consisiting //of a vector (lineVec) and a point on that line (linePoint). Vector3 projectPointOnLine(Vector3 linePoint, Vector3 lineVec, Vector3 point){

//get vector from point on line to point in space Vector3 linePointToPoint = point - linePoint;

float t = Vector3.Dot(linePointToPoint, lineVec);

return linePoint + lineVec * t; }

Vector3 projectPointOnPlane(Vector3 planeNormal, Vector3 planePoint, Vector3 point){

float distance; Vector3 translationVector;

//First calculate the distance from the point to the plane: distance = signedDistancePlanePoint(planeNormal, planePoint, point);

//Reverse the sign of the distance distance *= -1;

//Get a translation vector translationVector = setVectorLength(planeNormal, distance);

//Translate the point to form a projection return point + translationVector; }

//Get the shortest distance between a point and a plane float signedDistancePlanePoint(Vector3 planeNormal, Vector3 planePoint, Vector3 point){

return Vector3.Dot(planeNormal, (point - planePoint)); }

//This fuction calculates a signed (+ or - sign instead of being ambiguous) dot product. It is basically used //to figure out whether a vector is positioned to the left or right of another vector. The way this is done is //by calculating a vector perpendicular to one of the vectors and using that as a reference. This is because //the result of a dot product only has signed information when an angle is transitioning between more or less //then 90 degrees. float signedDotProduct(Vector3 vectorA, Vector3 vectorB, Vector3 normal){ Vector3 perpVector; float dot;

//Use the geometry object normal and one of the input vectors to calculate the perpendicular vector perpVector = Vector3.Cross(normal, vectorA);

//Now calculate the dot product between the perpendicular vector (perpVector) and the other input vector dot = Vector3.Dot(perpVector, vectorB);

return dot; }

//Calculate the angle between a vector and a plane. The plane is made by a normal vector. //Output is in radians. float angleVectorPlane(Vector3 vector, Vector3 normal){

float dot; float angle;

//calculate the the dot product between the two input vectors. This gives the cosine between the two vectors dot = Vector3.Dot(vector, normal);

//this is in radians angle = (float)Math.Acos(dot);

return 1.570796326794897f - angle; //90 }

//Calculate the dot product as an angle float dotProductAngle(Vector3 vec1, Vector3 vec2){

double dot; double angle;

//get the dot product dot = Vector3.Dot(vec1, vec2);

//Clamp to prevent NaN error. Shouldn't need this in the first place, but there could be a rounding error issue. if(dot < -1.0f){ dot = -1.0f; } if(dot > 1.0f){ dot =1.0f; }

//Calculate the angle. The output is in radians //This step can be skipped for optimization... angle = Math.Acos(dot);

return (float)angle; }

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